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The Prophet of Islam - His Biography

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The Prophet of Islam - His Biography

Post by Jalloul Lebanon on 24.03.12 4:51


In the annals of men, individuals have not been
lacking who conspicuously devoted their lives to the socio-religious reform of
their connected peoples. We find them in every epoch and in all lands. In India,
there lived those who transmitted to the world the Vedas, and there was also the
great Gautama Buddha; China had its Confucius; the Avesta was produced in Iran.
Babylonia gave to the world one of the greatest reformers, the Prophet Abraham
(not to speak of such of his ancestors as Enoch and Noah about whom we have very
scanty information). The Jewish people may rightly be proud of a long series of
reformers: Moses, Samuel, David, Solomon, and Jesus among others.

Two points to be note: Firstly these reformers
claimed in general to be the bearers each of a Divine mission, and they left
behind them sacred books incorporating codes of life for the guidance of their
peoples. Secondly there followed fratricidal wars, and massacres and genocides
became the order of the day, causing more or less a complete loss of these
Divine messages. As to the books of Abraham, we know them only by the name; and
as for the books of Moses, records tell us how they were repeatedly destroyed
and only partly restored.

Concept of God

If one should judge from the relics of the past
already brought to light of the homo sapiens, one finds that man has always been
conscious of the existence of a Supreme Being, the Master and Creator of all.
Methods and approaches may have differed, but the people of every epoch have
left proofs of their attempts to obey God. Communication with the Omnipresent
yet invisible God has also been recognized as possible in connection with a
small fraction of men with noble and exalted spirits. Whether this communication
assumed the nature of an incarnation of the Divinity or simply resolved itself
into a medium of reception of Divine messages (through inspiration or
revelation), the purpose in each case was the guidance of the people. It was but
natural that the interpretations and explanations of certain systems should have
proved more vital and convincing than others.

Every system of metaphysical thought develops
its own terminology. In the course of time terms acquire a significance hardly
contained in the word and translations fall short of their purpose. Yet there is
no other method to make people of one group understand the thoughts of another.
Non-Muslim readers in particular are requested to bear in mind this aspect which
is a real yet unavoidable handicap.

By the end of the 6th century, after the birth
of Jesus Christ, men had already made great progress in diverse walks of life.
At that time there were some religions which openly proclaimed that they were
reserved for definite races and groups of men only, of course they bore no
remedy for the ills of humanity at large. There were also a few which claimed
universality, but declared that the salvation of man lay in the renunciation of
the world. These were the religions for the elite, and catered for an extremely
limited number of men. We need not speak of regions where there existed no
religion at all, where atheism and materialism reigned supreme, where the
thought was solely of occupying one self with one's own pleasures, without any
regard or consideration for the rights of others.

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Re: The Prophet of Islam - His Biography

Post by Jalloul Lebanon on 24.03.12 4:52


A perusal of the map of the major hemisphere
(from the point of view of the proportion of land to sea), shows the Arabian
Peninsula lying at the confluence of the three great continents of Asia, Africa
and Europe. At the time in question. this extensive Arabian subcontinent
composed mostly of desert areas was inhabited by people of settled habitations
as well as nomads. Often it was found that members of the same tribe were
divided into these two groups, and that they preserved a relationship although
following different modes of life. The means of subsistence in Arabia were meager.
The desert had its handicaps, and trade caravans were features of greater
importance than either agriculture or industry. This entailed much travel, and
men had to proceed beyond the peninsula to Syria, Egypt, Abyssinia, Iraq, Sind,
India and other lands.

We do not know much about the Libyanites of
Central Arabia, but Yemen was rightly called Arabia Felix. Having once been the
seat of the flourishing civilizations of Sheba and Ma'in even before the
foundation of the city of Rome had been laid, and having later snatched from the
Byzantians and Persians several provinces, greater Yemen which had passed
through the hey-day of its existence, was however at this time broken up into
innumerable principalities, and even occupied in part by foreign invaders. The
Sassanians of Iran, who had penetrated into Yemen had already obtained
possession of Eastern Arabia. There was politico-social chaos at the capital (Mada'in
= Ctesiphon), and this found reflection in all her territories. Northern Arabia
had succumbed to Byzantine influences, and was faced with its own particular
problems. Only Central Arabia remained immune from the demoralizing effects of
foreign occupation.

In this limited area of Central Arabia, the
existence of the triangle of Mecca-Ta'if-Madinah seemed something providential.
Mecca, desertic, deprived of water and the amenities of agriculture in physical
features represented Africa and the burning Sahara. Scarcely fifty miles from
there, Ta'if presented a picture of Europe and its frost. Madinah in the North
was not less fertile than even the most temperate of Asiatic countries like
Syria. If climate has any influence on human character, this triangle standing
in the middle of the major hemisphere was, more than any other region of the
earth, a miniature reproduction of the entire world. And here was born a
descendant of the Babylonian Abraham, and the Egyptian Hagar, Muhammad the
Prophet of Islam, a Meccan by origin and yet with stock related, both to Madinah
and Ta'if.


From the point of view of religion, Arabia was
idolatrous; only a few individuals had embraced religions like Christianity,
Mazdaism, etc. The Meccans did possess the notion of the One God, but they
believed also that idols had the power to intercede with Him. Curiously enough,
they did not believe in the Resurrection and Afterlife. They had preserved the
rite of the pilgrimage to the House of the One God, the Ka'bah, an institution
set up under divine inspiration by their ancestor Abraham, yet the two thousand
years that separated them from Abraham had caused to degenerate this pilgrimage
into the spectacle of a commercial fair and an occasion of senseless idolatry
which far from producing any good, only served to ruin their individual behavior,
both social and spiritual.


In spite of the comparative poverty in natural
resources, Mecca was the most developed of the three points of the triangle. Of
the three, Mecca alone had a city-state, governed by a council of ten hereditary
chiefs who enjoyed a clear division of power. (There was a minister of foreign
relations, a minister guardian of the temple, a minister of oracles, a minister
guardian of offerings to the temple, one to determine the torts and the damages
payable, another in charge of the municipal council or parliament to enforce the
decisions of the ministries. There were also ministers in charge of military
affairs like custodianship of the flag, leadership of the cavalry etc.). As well
reputed caravan-leaders, the Meccans were able to obtain permission from
neighbouring empires like Iran, Byzantium and Abyssinia - and to enter into
agreements with the tribes that lined the routes traversed by the caravans - to
visit their countries and transact import and export business. They also
provided escorts to foreigners when they passed through their country as well as
the territory of allied tribes, in Arabia (cf. Ibn Habib, Muhabbar). Although
not interested much in the preservation of ideas and records in writing, they
passionately cultivated arts and letters like poetry, oratory discourses and
folk tales. Women were generally well treated, they enjoyed the privilege of
possessing property in their own right, they gave their consent to marriage
contracts, in which they could even add the condition of reserving their right
to divorce their husbands. They could remarry when widowed or divorced. Burying
girls alive did exist in certain classes, but that was rare.

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Re: The Prophet of Islam - His Biography

Post by Jalloul Lebanon on 24.03.12 4:52

Birth of the Prophet

It was in the midst of such conditions and environments that Muhammad was born in 569 after Christ. His father, 'Abdullah had died some weeks earlier, and it was his grandfather who took him in charge. According to the prevailing custom, the child was entrusted to a Bedouin foster-mother, with whom he passed several years in the desert. All biographers state that the infant prophet sucked only one breast of his foster-mother, leaving the other for the sustenance of his foster-brother. When the child was brought back home, his mother, Aminah, took him to his maternal uncles at Madinah to visit the tomb of 'Abdullah. During the return journey, he lost his mother who died a sudden death. At Mecca, another bereavement awaited him, in the death of his affectionate grandfather. Subjected to such privations, he was at the age of eight, consigned at last to the care of his uncle, Abu-Talib, a man who was generous of nature but always short of resources and hardly able to provide for his family.

Young Muhammad had therefore to start immediately to earn his livelihood; he served as a shepherd boy to some neighbors. At the age of ten he accompanied his uncle to Syria when he was leading a caravan there. No other travels of Abu-Talib are mentioned, but there are references to his having set up a shop in Mecca. (Ibn Qutaibah, Ma'arif). It is possible that Muhammad helped him in this enterprise also.

By the time he was twenty-five, Muhammad had become well known in the city for the integrity of his disposition and the honesty of his character. A rich widow, Khadijah, took him in her employ and consigned to him her goods to be taken for sale to Syria. Delighted with the unusual profits she obtained as also by the personal charms of her agent, she offered him her hand. According to divergent reports, she was either 28 or 40 years of age at that time, (medical reasons prefer the age of 28 since she gave birth to five more children). The union proved happy. Later, we see him sometimes in the fair of Hubashah (Yemen), and at least once in the country of the 'Abd al-Qais (Bahrain-Oman), as mentioned by Ibn Hanbal. There is every reason to believe that this refers to the great fair of Daba (Oman), where, according to Ibn al-Kalbi (cf. Ibn Habib, Muhabbar), the traders of China, of Hind and Sind (India, Pakistan), of Persia, of the East and the West assembled every year, traveling both by land and sea. There is also mention of a commercial partner of Muhammad at Mecca. This person, Sa'ib by name reports: "We relayed each other; if Muhammad led the caravan, he did not enter his house on his return to Mecca without clearing accounts with me; and if I led the caravan, he would on my return enquire about my welfare and speak nothing about his own capital entrusted to me."

An Order of Chivalry

Foreign traders often brought their goods to Mecca for sale. One day a certain Yemenite (of the tribe of Zubaid) improvised a satirical poem against some Meccans who bad refused to pay him the price of what he had sold, and others who had not supported his claim or had failed to come to his help when he was victimized. Zuhair, uncle and chief of the tribe of the Prophet, felt great remorse on hearing this just satire. He called for a meeting of certain chieftains in the city, and organized an order of chivalry, called Hilf al-fudul, with the aim and object of aiding the oppressed in Mecca, irrespective of their being dwellers of the city or aliens. Young Muhammad became an enthusiastic member of the organization. Later in life he used to say: "I have participated in it, and I am not prepared to give up that privilege even against a herd of camels; if somebody should appeal to me even today, by virtue of that pledge, I shall hurry to his help."

Beginning of Religious Consciousness

Not much is known about the religious practices of Muhammad until he was thirty-five years old, except that he had never worshipped idols. This is substantiated by all his biographers. It may be stated that there were a few others in Mecca, who had likewise revolted against the senseless practice of paganism, although conserving their fidelity to the Ka'bah as the house dedicated to the One God by its builder Abraham.

About the year 605 of the Christian era, the draperies on the outer wall of the Ka'bah took fire. The building was affected and could not bear the brunt of the torrential rains that followed. The reconstruction of the Ka'bah was thereupon undertaken. Each citizen contributed according to his means; and only the gifts of honest gains were accepted. Everybody participated in the work of construction, and Muhammad's shoulders were injured in the course of transporting stones. To identify the place whence the ritual of circumambulation began, there had been set a black stone in the wall of the Ka'bah, dating probably from the time of Abraham himself. There was rivalry among the citizens for obtaining the honor of transposing this stone in its place. When there was danger of blood being shed, somebody suggested leaving the matter to Providence, and accepting the arbitration of him who should happen to arrive there first. It chanced that Muhammad just then turned up there for work as usual. He was popularly known by the appellation of al-Amin (the honest), and everyone accepted his arbitration without hesitation. Muhammad placed a sheet of cloth on the ground, put the stone on it and asked the chiefs of all the tribes in the city to lift together the cloth. Then he himself placed the stone in its proper place, in one of the angles of the building, and everybody was satisfied.

It is from this moment that we find Muhammad becoming more and more absorbed in spiritual meditations. Like his grandfather, he used to retire during the whole month of Ramadan to a cave in Jabal-an-Nur (mountain of light). The cave is called 'Ghar-i-Hira' or the cave of research. There he prayed, meditated, and shared his meager provisions with the travelers who happened to pass by.
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Re: The Prophet of Islam - His Biography

Post by Jalloul Lebanon on 24.03.12 4:56


He was forty years old, and it was the
fifth consecutive year since his annual retreats, when one night towards the end
of the month of Ramadan, an angel came to visit him, and announced that God had
chosen him as His messenger to all mankind. The angel taught him the mode of
ablutions, the way of worshipping God and the conduct of prayer. He communicated
to him the following Divine message:

With the name of God, the Most Merciful, the
Read: with the name of thy Lord Who created,
Created man from what clings,
Read: and thy Lord is the Most Bounteous,
Who taught by the pen,
Taught man what he knew not. (Quran

Deeply affected, he returned home and
related to his wife what had happened, expressing his fears that it might have
been something diabolic or the action of evil spirits. She consoled him, saying
that he had always been a man of charity and generosity, helping the poor, the
orphans, the widows and the needy, and assured him that God would protect him
against all evil.

Then came a pause in revelation, extending
over three years. The Prophet must have felt at first a shock, then a calm, an
ardent desire, and after a period of waiting, a growing impatience or nostalgia.
The news of the first vision had spread and at the pause the skeptics in the
city had begun to mock at him and cut bitter jokes. They went so far as to say
that God had forsaken him.

During the three years of waiting. the
Prophet had given himself up more and more to prayers and to spiritual
practices. The revelations were then resumed and God assured him that He had not
at all forsaken him: on the contrary it was He Who had guided him to the right
path: therefore he should take care of the orphans and the destitute, and
proclaim the bounty of God on him (cf. Q. 93:3-11). This was in reality an order
to preach. Another revelation directed him to warn people against evil
practices, to exhort them to worship none but the One God, and to abandon
everything that would displease God (Q. 74:2-7). Yet another revelation
commanded him to warn his own near relatives (Q. 26:214); and: "Proclaim
openly that which thou art commanded, and withdraw from the Associators
(idolaters). Lo! we defend thee from the scoffers" (15:94-5). According to
Ibn Ishaq, the first revelation (n. 17) had come to the Prophet during his
sleep, evidently to reduce the shock. Later revelations came in full

The Mission

The Prophet began by preaching his mission
secretly first among his intimate friends, then among the members of his own
tribe and thereafter publicly in the city and suburbs. He insisted on the belief
in One Transcendent God, in Resurrection and the Last Judgment. He invited men
to charity and beneficence. He took necessary steps to preserve through writing
the revelations he was receiving, and ordered his adherents also to learn them
by heart. This continued all through his life, since the Quran was not revealed
all at once, but in fragments as occasions arose.

The number of his adherents increased
gradually, but with the denunciation of paganism, the opposition also
grew intense on the part of those who were firmly attached to their
beliefs. This opposition degenerated in the course of time into physical
of the Prophet and of those who had embraced his religion. These were
on burning sands, cauterized with red hot iron and imprisoned with
chains on
their feet. Some of them died of the effects of torture, but none would
his religion. In despair, the Prophet Muhammad advised his companions to
their native town and take refuge abroad, in Abyssinia, "where governs a
just ruler, in whose realm nobody is oppressed" (Ibn Hisham). Dozens of
Muslims profited by his advice, though not all. These secret flights led
further persecution of those who remained behind.

The Prophet Muhammad [was instructed to
call this] religion "Islam," i.e. submission to the will of God. Its
distinctive features are two:

  1. A harmonious equilibrium between the temporal
    and the spiritual (the body and the soul), permitting a full enjoyment of
    all the good that God has created, (Quran 7:32), enjoining at the same time
    on everybody duties towards God, such as worship, fasting, charity, etc.
    Islam was to be the religion of the masses and not merely of the elect.

  2. A universality of the call - all the
    believers becoming brothers and equals without any distinction of class or
    race or tongue. The only superiority which it recognizes is a personal one,
    based on the greater fear of God and greater piety (Quran 49:13).

Social Boycott

When a large number of the Meccan Muslims
migrated to Abyssinia, the leaders of paganism sent an ultimatum to the tribe of
the Prophet, demanding that he should be excommunicated and outlawed and
delivered to the pagans for being put to death. Every member of the tribe,
Muslim and non-Muslim rejected the demand. (cf. Ibn Hisham). Thereupon the city
decided on a complete boycott of the tribe: Nobody was to talk to them or have
commercial or matrimonial relations with them. The group of Arab tribes called
Ahabish, inhabiting the suburbs, who were allies of the Meccans, also joined in
the boycott, causing stark misery among the innocent victims consisting of
children, men and women, the old and the sick and the feeble. Some of them
succumbed yet nobody would hand over the Prophet to his persecutors. An uncle of
the Prophet, Abu Lahab, however left his tribesmen and participated in the
boycott along with the pagans. After three dire years, during which the victims
were obliged to devour even crushed hides, four or five non-Muslims, more humane
than the rest and belonging to different clans proclaimed publicly their
denunciation of the unjust boycott. At the same time, the document promulgating
the pact of boycott which had been hung in the temple, was found, as Muhammad
had predicted, eaten by white ants, that spared nothing but the words God and
Muhammad. The boycott was lifted, yet owing to the privations that were
undergone the wife and Abu Talib, the chief of the tribe and uncle of the
Prophet died soon after. Another uncle of the Prophet, Abu-Lahab, who was an
inveterate enemy of Islam, now succeeded to the headship of the tribe. (cf. lbn
Hisham, Sirah).

The Ascension

It was at this time that the Prophet
Muhammad was granted the mi'raj (ascension): He saw in a vision that he
received on heaven by God, and was witness of the marvels of the
regions. Returning, he brought for his community, as a Divine gift, the
prayer of Islam, the salaat], which constitutes a sort of communion
between man
and God. It may be recalled that in the last part of Muslim service of
the faithful employ as a symbol of their being in the very presence of
God, not
concrete objects as others do at the time of communion, but the very
words of
greeting exchanged between the Prophet Muhammad and God on the occasion
of the formers mi'raj: "The blessed and pure greetings for God! - Peace
be with
thee, O Prophet, as well as the mercy and blessing of God! - Peace be
with us
and with all the [righteous] servants of God!" The Christian term
"communion" implies participation in the Divinity. Finding it
pretentious, Muslims use the term "ascension" towards God and
reception in His presence, God remaining God and man remaining man and
confusion between the twain.

The news of this celestial meeting led to
an increase in the hostility of the pagans of Mecca; and the Prophet was obliged
to quit his native town in search of an asylum elsewhere. He went to his
maternal uncles in Ta'if, but returned immediately to Mecca, as the wicked
people of that town chased the Prophet out of their city by pelting stones on
him and wounding him.

Migration to Madinah

The annual pilgrimage of the Ka'bah brought
to Mecca people from all parts of Arabia. The Prophet Muhammad tried to persuade
one tribe after another to afford him shelter and allow him to carry on his
mission of reform. The contingents of fifteen tribes, whom he approached in
succession, refused to do so more or less brutally, but he did not despair.
Finally he met half a dozen inhabitants of Madinah who being neighbor of the
Jews and the Christians, had some notion of prophets and Divine messages. They
knew also that these "people of the Books" were awaiting the arrival
of a prophet - a last comforter. So these Madinans decided not to lose the
opportunity of obtaining an advance over others, and forthwith embraced Islam,
promising further to provide additional adherents and necessary help from
Madinah. The following year a dozen new Madinans took the oath of allegiance to
him and requested him to provide with a missionary teacher. The work of the
missionary, Mus'ab, proved very successful and he led a contingent of
seventy-three new converts to Mecca, at the time of the pilgrimage. These
invited the Prophet and his Meccan companions to migrate to their town, and
promised to shelter the Prophet and to treat him and his companions as their own
kith and kin. Secretly and in small groups, the greater part of the Muslims
emigrated to Madinah. Upon this the pagans of Mecca not only confiscated the
property of the evacuees, but devised a plot to assassinate the Prophet. It
became now impossible for him to remain at home. It is worthy of mention, that
in spite of their hostility to his mission, the pagans had unbounded confidence
in his probity, so much so that many of them used to deposit their savings with
him. The Prophet Muhammad now entrusted all these deposits to 'Ali, a cousin of
his, with instructions to return in due course to the rightful owners. He then
left the town secretly in the company of his faithful friend, Abu-Bakr. After
several adventures, they succeeded in reaching Madinah in safety. This happened
in 622, whence starts the Hijrah calendar.

Reorganization of the Community

For the better rehabilitation of the
displaced immigrants, the Prophet created a fraternization between them and an
equal number of well-to-do Madinans. The families of each pair of the
contractual brothers worked together to earn their livelihood, and aided one
another in the business of life.

Further he thought that the development of
the man as a whole would be better achieved if he coordinated religion and
politics as two constituent parts of one whole. To this end he invited the
representatives of the Muslims as well as the non-Muslim inhabitants of the
region: Arabs, Jews, Christians and others, and suggested the establishment of a
City-State in Madinah. With their assent, he endowed the city with a written
constitution - the first of its kind in the world - in which he defined the
duties and rights both of the citizens and the head of the State - the Prophet
Muhammad was unanimously hailed as such - and abolished the customary private
justice. The administration of justice became henceforward the concern of the
central organization of the community of the citizens. The document laid down
principles of defense and foreign policy: it organized a system of social
insurance, called ma'aqil, in cases of too heavy obligations. It recognized that
the Prophet Muhammad would have the final word in all differences, and that
there was no limit to his power of legislation. It recognized also explicitly
liberty of religion, particularly for the Jews, to whom the constitutional act
afforded equality with Muslims in all that concerned life in this world (cf.
infra n. 303).

Muhammad journeyed several times with a
view to win the neighboring tribes and to conclude with them treaties of
alliance and mutual help. With their help, he decided to bring to bear economic
pressure on the Meccan pagans, who had confiscated the property of the Muslim
evacuees and also caused innumerable damage. Obstruction in the way of the
Meccan caravans and their passage through the Madinan region exasperated the
pagans, and a bloody struggle ensued.

In the concern for the material interests
of the community, the spiritual aspect was never neglected. Hardly a year had
passed after the migration to Madinah, when the most rigorous of spiritual
disciplines, the fasting for the whole month of Ramadan every year, was imposed
on every adult Muslim, man and woman.

Struggle Against Intolerance and Unbelief

Not content with the expulsion of the
Muslim compatriots, the Meccans sent an ultimatum to the Madinans, demanding the
surrender or at least the expulsion of Muhammad and his companions but evidently
all such efforts proved in vain. A few months later, in the year 2 A. H., they sent
a powerful army against the Prophet, who opposed them at Badr; and the pagans
thrice as numerous as the Muslims, were routed. After a year of preparation, the
Meccans again invaded Madinah to avenge the defeat of Badr. They were now four
times as numerous as the Muslims. After a bloody encounter at Uhud, the enemy
retired, the issue being indecisive. The mercenaries in the Meccan army did not
want to take too much risk, or endanger their safety.

In the meanwhile the Jewish citizens of
Madinah began to foment trouble. About the time of the victory of Badr, one of
their leaders, Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, proceeded to Mecca to give assurance of his
alliance with the pagans, and to incite them to a war of revenge. After the
battle of Uhud, the tribe of the same chieftain plotted to assassinate the
Prophet by throwing on him a mill-stone from above a tower, when he had gone to
visit their locality. In spite of all this, the only demand the Prophet made of
the men of this tribe was to quit the Madinan region, taking with them all their
properties, after selling their immovable items and recovering their debts from the
Muslims. The clemency thus extended had an effect contrary to what was hoped.
The exiled not only contacted the Meccans, but also the tribes of the North,
South and East of Madinah, mobilized military aid, and planned from Khaibar an
invasion of Madinah, with forces four times more numerous than those employed at
Uhud. The Muslims prepared for a siege, and dug a ditch to defend themselves
against this hardest of all trials. Although the defection of the Jews still
remaining inside Madinah at a later stage upset all strategy, yet with a
sagacious diplomacy, the Prophet succeeded in breaking up the alliance, and the
different enemy groups retired one after the other.

Alcoholic drinks, gambling and games of
chance were at this time declared forbidden for the Muslims.

The Reconciliation

The Prophet tried once more to reconcile
the Meccans and proceeded to Mecca. The barring of the route of their Northern
caravans had ruined their economy. The Prophet promised them transit security,
extradition of their fugitives and the fulfillment of every condition they
desired, agreeing even to return to Madinah without accomplishing the pilgrimage
of the Ka'bah. Thereupon the two contracting parties promised at Hudaibiyah in
the suburbs of Mecca, not only the maintenance of peace, but also the observance
of neutrality in their conflicts with third parties.

Profiting by the peace, the Prophet
launched an intensive program for the propagation of his religion. He
addressed missionary letters to the foreign rulers of Byzantium, Iran, Abyssinia
and other lands. The Byzantine autocrat priest - Daughter of the Arabs -
embraced Islam, but for this, was lynched by the Christian mob; the prefect of
Ma'an (Palestine) suffered the same fate, and was decapitated and crucified by
order of the emperor. A Muslim ambassador was assassinated in Syria-Palestine;
and instead of punishing the culprit, the emperor Heraclius rushed with his
armies to protect him against the punitive expedition sent by the Prophet
(battle of Mu'tah).

The pagans of Mecca hoping to profit by the
Muslim difficulties, violated the terms of their treaty. Upon this, the Prophet
himself led an army, ten thousand strong, and surprised Mecca which he occupied
in a bloodless manner. As a benevolent conqueror, he caused the vanquished
people to assemble, reminded them of their ill deeds, their religious
persecution, unjust confiscation of the evacuee property, ceaseless invasions
and senseless hostilities for twenty years continuously. He asked them:
"Now what do you expect of me?" When everybody lowered his head with
shame, the Prophet proclaimed: "May God pardon you; go in peace; there
shall be no responsibility on you today; you are free!" He even renounced
the claim for the Muslim property confiscated by the pagans. This produced a
great psychological change of hearts instantaneously. When a Meccan chief
advanced with a fulsome heart towards the Prophet, after hearing this general
amnesty, in order to declare his acceptance of Islam, the Prophet told him:
"And in my turn, I appoint you the governor of Mecca!" Without leaving
a single soldier in the conquered city, the Prophet retired to Madinah. The
Islamization of Mecca, which was accomplished in a few hours, was complete.

Immediately after the occupation of Mecca,
the city of Ta'if mobilized to fight against the Prophet. With some difficulty
the enemy was dispersed in the valley of Hunain, but the Muslims preferred to
raise the siege of nearby Ta'if and use pacific means to break the resistance of
this region. Less than a year later, a delegation from Ta'if came to Madinah
offering submission. But it requested exemption from prayer, taxes and military
service, and the continuance of the liberty to adultery and fornication and
alcoholic drinks. It demanded even the conservation of the temple of the idol
al-Lat at Ta'if. But Islam was not a materialist immoral movement; and soon the
delegation itself felt ashamed of its demands regarding prayer, adultery and
wine. The Prophet consented to concede exemption from payment of taxes and
rendering of military service; and added: You need not demolish the temple with
your own hands: we shall send agents from here to do the job, and if there
should be any consequences, which you are afraid of on account of your
superstitions, it will be they who would suffer. This act of the Prophet shows
what concessions could be given to new converts. The conversion of the Ta'ifites
was so whole hearted that in a short while, they themselves renounced the
contracted exemptions, and we find the Prophet nominating a tax collector in
their locality as in other Islamic regions.

In all these "wars," extending
over a period of ten years, the non-Muslims lost on the battlefield only about
250 persons killed, and the Muslim losses were even less. With these few
incisions, the whole continent of Arabia. with its million and more of square
miles, was cured of the abscess of anarchy and immorality. During these ten
years of disinterested struggle, all the peoples of the Arabian Peninsula and
the southern regions of Iraq and Palestine had voluntarily embraced Islam. Some
Christian, Jewish and Parsi groups remained attached to their creeds, and they
were granted liberty of conscience as well as judicial and juridical autonomy.

In the year 10 H., when the Prophet went to
Mecca for Hajj (pilgrimage), he met 140,000 Muslims there, who had come from
different parts of Arabia to fulfill their religious obligation. He addressed to
them his celebrated sermon, in which he gave a resume of his teachings:
"Belief in One God without images or symbols, equality of all the Believers
without distinction of race or class, the superiority of individuals being based
solely on piety; sanctity of life, property and honor; abolition of interest,
and of vendettas and private justice; better treatment of women; obligatory
inheritance and distribution of the property of deceased persons among near
relatives of both sexes, and removal of the possibility of the accumulation of
wealth in the hands of the few." The Quran and the conduct of the Prophet
were to serve as the bases of law and a healthy criterion in every aspect of
human life.

On his return to Madinah, he fell ill; and
a few weeks later, when he breathed his last, he had the satisfaction that he
had well accomplished the task which he had undertaken - to preach to the world
the Divine message.

He bequeathed to posterity, a religion of
pure monotheism; he created a well-disciplined State out of the existent chaos
and gave peace in place of the war of everybody against everybody else; he
established a harmonious equilibrium between the spiritual and the temporal,
between the mosque and the citadel; he left a new system of law, which dispensed
impartial justice, in which even the head of the State was as much a subject to
it as any commoner, and in which religious tolerance was so great that
non-Muslim inhabitants of Muslim countries equally enjoyed complete juridical,
judicial and cultural autonomy. In the matter of the revenues of the State, the
Quran fixed the principles of budgeting, and paid more thought to the poor than
to anybody else. The revenues were declared to be in no wise the private
property of the head of the State. Above all, the Prophet Muhammad set a noble
example and fully practiced all that he taught to others.

Jalloul Lebanon

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